When you are 4 weeks pregnant, your baby’s major organs are developing rapidly and he or she is changing from an embryo to a fetus. (She will become a fetus when all her major body parts are present and beginning to function.
By week 5 the heart will be forming and will begin to beat around week 6. The neural tube, which protects his spinal cord and connects it to his brain, is closing over.
By week 7, although he or she will only be the size of a small bean, arms and legs and even fingers will be forming, as will small spots on the head which will become eyes and nostrils.
By week 8, he will have a more developed brain and heart, which will be beating at about 150 beats per minute, double the speed of yours. His arms will be long enough for him to bend and his tiny legs may meet in front of him.
Make contact with your GP
You should inform your GP that you are pregnant as soon as you have had a positive test. He may suggest you make an appointment with him or he may just let the relevant hospital know so that a Booking Visit can be organized for you between 8 and 10 weeks. See 8 – 12 weeks for details on Booking Visit.
You may experience some kind of spotting, which can be alarming and worrying especially if you haven’t yet had your 12 week scan. If the bleeding is light in colour or volume, or brown and without pain then it may not be a problem, but do call your midwife/doctor if you are concerned. They may send you to your nearest Early Pregnancy Unit (EPU) for a scan to check that all is ok.
There is little point in doing repetitive pregnancy tests at this stage. Pregnancy tests are designed to detect the pregnancy hormone HCG in your urine. Even if you have had a miscarriage, this hormone will be present in your urine for period of days or even weeks, so tests will continue to show a positive result.
Waiting 12 weeks until the all-important scan can feel unbearable. However, as soon as you have made contact with your doctor or midwife, you can request a dating scan which will confirm your pregnancy and help you to plan the date of your 12 week scan and nuchal scan (should you chose to have one). Many people do not seem to know that this early scan is available to them – and perhaps your GP or doctor may not be forthcoming in offering this to you, but it is a provision made by the NHS for pregnant women in this country.
If you have a scan before 12 weeks, it may be an internal scan as the embryo/fetus can be too small to be seen by trans-abdominal scanningmethods (which are done on top of your tummy). The internal scan is a painless and quick procedure – a small wand will be inserted into your vagina and a picture will immediately be visible to the sonographer who will be able to see the developing embryo/fetus.
At 6 weeks, a yolk sac should be seen, and sometimes a heartbeat can be detected.
By 7 weeks, the embryo will be about 1cm long and the heartbeat should easily be detected.
By 8 weeks, the embryo will measure about 1.6cm, and you might be able to make out the head and body, and some movements.
By 9 weeks, the head, body and limbs can be seen and it will be looking more like a baby. It is now known as a fetus.
Worrying about a miscarriage
Many women worry about the possibility of a miscarriage in the first 12 weeks. So, if you find yourself unable to relax and continually scared of this prospect – it could be a good idea to go for a private scan to give yourself peace of mind. The cost can range from around £100 to £300 but this can represent great value for peace of mind, but again, if you can wait until 6 or 7 weeks this is a good idea.
At around 6 weeks you may start to experience nausea which can present itself in many ways, ranging from mild nausea to constant vomiting (hyperemesis gravidarum – HG) which in some cases can lead to dehydration- this can sometimes require hospitalization.
The general term for this, “Morning Sickness” is for many women an inaccurate description. The nausea can last all day, or even be worse in the afternoon. It can be made worse when hungry or tired or can be triggered by certain smells or motion. Whilst some women compare the feeling to an all day hangover, others actually vomit on a daily basis. Either way it can be unpleasant start to what many are hoping to be a wonderful time in their lives.
You may become sensitive to certain smells. Walking past a previously inoffensive nail parlour may have you retching!
On a positive note, feeling sick is a sign that your pregnancy hormones are high, which is good for the growing baby. Nausea during the first few weeks of pregnancy is associated with a lower than average risk of miscarriage and may be the body’s way of stopping you from taking in “poisons”. It is likely to improve somewhere between 14 and 16 weeks.
Tips for dealing with this include;
- Eat as soon as you wake up, or even whilst still in bed.
- Nibbling on crackers or biscuits often, even in the night, especially if you wake up hungry during the night. Hunger can make the nausea worse. Keep a cracker, biscuit or banana on your bedside table!
- Ginger in any form, tea, biscuits, Nairns Ginger Oat cakes are delicious and can be found in most supermarkets or Health Food shops.
- Sometimes smelling ginger can help- try some Ginger Hand Cream and keep it in your desk at work
- Acupressure bands (Sea sickness bands) these can be found in most chemists or online.
- Rest as much as you can as tiredness can make it worse.
If it is affecting your work then it could be a good idea to tell your boss.
If you are being sick, on the way to work or whilst out and about- take a plastic bag, bottle of water and chewing gum/toothbrush in your handbag.
You may find that you go off tea, coffee, alcohol or certain foods. This can be helpful if you are trying to avoid drinking alcohol or too much caffeine.
You may also find yourself becoming absent-minded or preoccupied with your pregnancy.
You may also be feeling or acting more clumsy than usual.